Lower concentration solution is normally prepared by diluting a calculated volume of a solution with higher concentration upto defined volume while the solution units of the stock and dilute are kept the same. Most of the times water is used as a solvent. The quantity of solvent depends on the required lower concentration solution. Concentration is calculated in weight per unit volume. And volume is calculated in Liters rather than weight.
Serial Dilution consists of a series of smaller dilution, and the entire dilution is a product of each dilution in the series. Serial dilutions are simple and much easier to prepare. They cover the range evenly.
Laws of Dilution Calculation:
To calculate dilution we need sample which is measured in volume per total volume of a mixture of sample and diluent. The formula will be as follows:
Dilution = V of Sample / Total V of (sample + diluent)
Dilution Factor = Total V of (sample + diluent) / V of sample
** or we can simply say the reciprocal of Dilution